|Slight, irregular vaginal
bleeding that often is brownish; pain in the lower abdomen,
often on one side, and can be followed by severe pelvic
pain; shoulder pain; faintness or dizziness; nausea or vomiting.
||Ectopic pregnancy (the fertilized
egg implants outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian
||Blood tests; vaginal or
abdominal ultrasound exam (screening that uses high-frequency
sound waves to form pictures of the fetus on a computer screen);
laparoscopy (surgery to view the abdominal organs directly
with a viewing instrument).
||Because the embryo of an
ectopic pregnancy cannot survive, it is removed surgically;
or the woman is treated with a cancer drug, methotrexate,
which dissolves the pregnancy.
|Extreme thirst, hunger,
or fatigue (but usually no symptoms). Also, a blood sugar
value of 140 mg/DL or greater on a diabetes test.
||Gestational diabetes (a
form of diabetes that usually occurs in the second half of
||Blood test one hour after
drinking a glucose (form of sugar) drink.
||Most women can control their
blood sugar levels with diet and exercise. Some women with
gestational diabetes or women who had diabetes before pregnancy
need shots of insulin to keep blood sugar levels under control.
|Flu-like symptoms like mild
fever, headache, muscle aches and tiredness; loss of appetite,
nausea, vomiting and diarrhea; dark-colored urine and pale
bowel movements; stomach pain; skin and whites of eyes turning
yellow (jaundice); liver problems. Also often no symptoms.
||Hepatitis B (can be passed
on to the baby).
||Within 12 hours of birth,
your baby will need a shot called HBIG, along with the first
Hepatitis B shot.
|Often no symptoms, but can
include: small blisters or warts in the genital area; fever;
fatigue; aches and pains; vaginal discharge (yellowish, bloody,
green, gray, or thick and white like cottage cheese, or with
a strong odor); burning or pain when urinating; itching around
genital area; itching or burning in vagina; pain in legs or
buttocks; pain during sex; frequent yeast infections; skin
||HIV or other sexually transmitted
diseases (can be passed on to the baby).
||Blood test. Physical exam
to look for symptoms in the throat, anus, or genital area.
Visual exam to inspect skin for rashes, growths or sores,
especially the area around the genitals. Pelvic exam to look
at the inside of the vagina (birth canal) and cervix (opening
to the uterus, or womb) and to feel internal organs for any
inflammation or growths. Taking a sample of fluid or tissue
from the vaginal, anal or genital area to look for the presence
||Antiviral drugs; possible
|Flu-like illness with fever,
muscle aches, chills, and sometimes diarrhea or nausea that
can progress to severe headache and stiff neck.
||Listeriosis (infection from
the bacterium listeria monocytogenes, which can be found in
soft cheeses and ready-to-eat deli meats).
||Antibiotics (often prevent
infection in the baby).
|Mild flu-like symptoms,
or possibly no symptoms.
infection that can be passed on to the baby, which can be
contracted from cat feces or soil, or from eating raw or undercooked
meat that contains the parasite).
||Blood test. If the mother
is infected, the fetus can be tested through amniocentesis
(a test on the fluid around the baby, to diagnose certain
birth defects) and ultrasound.
||If fetus not yet infected,
mother can be given an antibiotic, spiramycin (to help reduce
severity of symptoms in the newborn). If the fetus is suspected
of being infected, the mother can be given two medications,
pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Infected babies are treated
at birth and through the first year of life with these medications.
|Pain or burning when urinating;
pain in lower pelvis, lower back, stomach or side; shaking,
chills; fever; sweats; nausea, vomiting; frequent or uncontrollable
urge to urinate; strong-smelling urine; change in amount of
urine; blood or pus in urine; pain during sex
||Urinary tract infection
(if left untreated, can travel to kidneys, which can cause
premature, or early, labor).
||Antibiotics, usually 3 to
7 day course of amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin, or cephalosporin.
|Painless vaginal bleeding
during the second or third trimester. In many cases, no symptoms.
||Placenta previa (the placenta,
or the temporary organ joining the mother and fetus, covers
part or all of the cervix and can cause severe bleeding usually
toward the end of the second trimester or later).
||An ultrasound exam.
||If diagnosed after the 20th
week of pregnancy, but with no bleeding, requires to cut back
on activity level and increase bed rest. If bleeding is heavy,
requires hospitalization until mother and baby are stable.
If the bleeding stops or is light, requires continued bed
rest until baby is ready for delivery. If bleeding doesn't
stop or if pre-term labor starts, baby will be delivered by
|Vaginal bleeding during
the second half of pregnancy; cramping, abdominal pain, and
||Placental abruption (a condition
in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before
delivery, depriving the fetus of oxygen).
||An ultrasound exam.
||When the separation is minor,
bed rest for a few days usually stops the bleeding. Moderate
cases may require complete bed rest. Severe cases (when more
than half of the placenta separates) can require immediate
medical attention and delivery of the baby.
|Fetus stops moving around
and kicking. If, after 26 weeks of pregnancy, you count fewer
than 10 kicks in a day, or if the baby is moving a lot less
than usual, see your health care provider right away.
||Baby possibly in distress,
potential risk of stillbirth.
||A nonstress test (NST) (measures
the response of the baby's heart rate to each movement the
baby makes as reported by mother or seen by a health care
provider on an ultrasound screen); contraction stress test
(usually ordered if the nonstress test shows a problem - stimulates
the uterus to contract with the drug pitocin to look at the
effect of contractions on the baby's heart rate); biophysical
profile (BPP) (a combination of the NST and an exam of the
baby's breathing, body movement, muscle tone, and amount of
||Treatment depends on results
of tests. If a test suggests a problem, this does not always
mean the baby is in trouble. It may only mean that the mother
needs special care until the baby is delivered. This can include
a wide variety of things (such as bed rest and further monitoring)
depending on the mother's condition.
|High blood pressure (usually
around 140/90); protein in the urine; swelling of the hands
and face; sudden weight gain (1 pound a day or more); blurred
vision; severe headaches, dizziness; intense stomach pain
||Pregnancy-related high blood
pressure (preeclampsia, also called toxemia). Usually occurs
after about 30 weeks of pregnancy.
||Blood pressure test; urine
test; evaluation by a health care provider.
||The only cure is delivery,
which may not be best for the baby. Labor will probably be
induced if condition is mild and woman is near term (37 to
40 weeks of pregnancy). If a woman is not yet ready for labor,
her provider may monitor her and her baby closely. May require
bed rest at home or in hospital, until blood pressure stabilizes
or until delivery.
|Contractions, either painful
or painless, anytime during pregnancy, that occur more than
four times an hour, or are less than 15 minutes apart; menstrual
like cramps that come and go; abdominal cramps with or without
diarrhea; dull backache that may radiate around to the abdomen;
increase in or change in color in vaginal discharge; constant
or intermittent pelvic pressure
||Early or pre-term labor
(labor occurring after 20 weeks, but before 37 completed weeks
||Monitoring of uterine contractions
by wearing an elastic belt around waist that holds a transducer
or small pressure-sensitive recorder. Can be worn at the health
care provider's office, hospital, or home.
||Lie down with feet elevated;
drink 2 or 3 glasses of water or juice. If symptoms do not
subside within one hour, contact health care provider. May
require medications called tocolytics or magnesium sulfate
to stop contractions.
|Intense feelings of sadness,
guilt, despair, helplessness, anxiety, irritability, which
may disrupt your ability to function; appetite changes; thoughts
of self-harm or harming your baby; "baby blues"
haven't gone away after 2 weeks.
||Post-partum depression (a
serious kind of depression that needs medical attention and
||Evaluation by a health care
||Can be successfully treated
in most cases with antidepressant medication, psychotherapy,
participation in a support group, or a combination of these
|Soreness or a lump in the
breast accompanied by a fever and/or flu-like symptoms; possibly
nausea and vomiting; yellowish discharge from the nipple;
breasts feel warm or hot to the touch; pus or blood in the
milk; red streaks near the area; symptoms could come on severely
||Breast infection (mastitis).
||Evaluation by a health care
||If symptoms are not relieved
within 24 hours of the following steps, see a health care
provider (you may need an antibiotic). Relieve soreness by
applying heat (heating pad or small hot-water bottle) to the
sore area. Massage the area, starting behind the sore spot.
Use your fingers in a circular motion and massage toward the
nipple. Breastfeed often on the affected side. Rest. Wear
a well-fitting supportive bra that is not too tight.
|A low-grade fever and tiredness
followed by a facial rash that looks like "slapped cheeks."
The rash also can look lace-like and be on the trunk, legs,
and arms. Some adults do not have the rash, but may have painful
and swollen joints.
||A viral infection called
fifth disease, caused by the human parvovirus B19.
Many women of childbearing age are immune to this virus, and
most women who are infected during pregnancy will not have
serious problems as a result. But, there is a small danger
that the virus can infect the fetus in some women. This raises
the risk of miscarriage within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.
In women who have problems with their immune systems or with
red blood cell disorders, such as sickle-cell disease, infection
can cause severe anemia.
||Based on appearance of the
rash. A specific blood test can be done to confirm it.
||No specific treatment, except
for blood transfusions that might be needed for people who
have problems with their immune systems or with red blood
cell disorders. There is no vaccine to help prevent infection
with this virus.